Plants typically found in the inter row

In our research project we have found over 150 different species of plants in inter rows in macadamias.

A range of weeds and grasses are likely to be present in the inter row, and may vary considerably across the block. Dominant grasses like smother grass and kikuya can cause reductions in diversity.

In some locations all that is required to increase diversity is to cultivate the soil to allow dormant seeds to germinate.

Very typical non grass species that are good for beneficials and pollinators were: Milk thistles, Cobblers Pegs, flat weed, plantain and Billygoat weed.

Grass species noted to be attractive to beneficials were prarie grass and Rhodes grass and in headland setaria.


Inter-row management to aid beneficial arthropods and improve soil health


Billy goat weed


Flat weed

Plantain flower


Honey bees love cobblers peg flowers


Milk thistle are hosts for aphids which are host for ladybirds, hoverflies and lacewings and parasitoids.


lacewings are attracted to pollen on prarie grass

lSetaria is undesirable in the inter row but is good for headlands. It produces a lot of pollen good for llacewings but here some aphids are being fed on by a ladybird.

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